Water temperature: The requirements are different according to the different breeding species. For example, turbot is a cold-water fish, the water temperature is more suitable at 12-18 degrees, and the sea cucumber is more suitable at 10-16 degrees. If the water temperature is higher than 20 degrees, it will do summer sleep. Penaeus vannamei likes high water temperature and grows faster above 22 degrees.
Salinity: Same as water temperature, different varieties have different requirements for salinity. Let’s not talk about freshwater cultured species. Marine cultured species are distinguished between wide-salinity and narrow-salinity. Wide-salt species can survive under different salinities, such as sturgeon, seabass, vannamei, rainbow trout. However, narrow-saline species can only survive within a certain range of salinity, such as sea cucumbers, etc., and the salinity of the water body is not easy to change too quickly in a short time.
PH: Most aquaculture species are more suitable for survival in neutral or weakly alkaline water environments, such as pH 7.5-8.2. Freshwater fish can adapt to a wider range of pH, which can be between pH 6.5-9.0. In ornamental fish breeding, there are enthusiasts who specialize in playing with grass tanks. The water environment of this grass tank is weakly acidic.
Dissolved oxygen: There are varieties that are tolerant to hypoxia and varieties that are not tolerant to hypoxia. Generally speaking, DO greater than 5mg/L is better. Of course, too high dissolved oxygen can cause fish to get air bubble disease.
Ammonia nitrogen: Basically, it is required to be less than 0.2mg/L, if it is too high, it will poison the cultured species.
Nitrite: Generally, it will be required to be less than 0.1mg/L, if it is higher, it will be converted to ammonia nitrogen, which indirectly leads to aquatic animal poisoning.
Total alkalinity: 80-120mg/L is required in the culture of Penaeus vannamei.
Hydrogen sulfide: less than 0.1mg/L.